Despre Romania

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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total:  237,500 sq km

land:  230,340 sq km

water:  7,160 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries: total:  2,508 km

border countries:  Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Yugoslavia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
Coastline: 225 km
Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Black Sea 0 m

highest point:  Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use: arable land:  41%

permanent crops:  3%

permanent pastures:  21%

forests and woodland:  29%

other:  6% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 31,020 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Environment - current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine




Population: 22,364,022 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  17.95% (male 2,054,323; female 1,959,196)

15-64 years:  68.51% (male 7,605,751; female 7,715,434)

65 years and over:  13.54% (male 1,255,880; female 1,773,438) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.21% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 10.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 12.28 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.71 male(s)/female

total population:  0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 19.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  70.16 years

male:  66.36 years

female:  74.19 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Nationality: noun:  Romanian(s)

adjective:  Romanian
Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 7.1%, Roma 1.8%, German 0.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, other 0.8% (1992)
Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 3%, Uniate Catholic 3%, Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%
Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German


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